The position of a Drug Enforcement Administration administrative law judge calling for the legalization of marijuana has been sharply challenged by other DEA officials.
Terming marijuana “one of the safest therapeutically active substances known to man,” Judge Francis L. Young recently recommended that it be approved as a prescription drug for the treatment of multiple sclerosis and of nausea suffered by cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Young’s recommendation marks the first time a government official has come out in acceptance of a medicinal purpose for marijuana-the most widely used illicit drug in the United States.
However, other DEA officials have made known their strong opposition to Young’s recommendation. Stephen L. Stone, DEA associate counsel, was recently quoted as saying that “this totally ignores the bulk of medical evidence. From our point of view, marijuana has not been established as a safe and effective drug.”
Other DEA attorneys have stated that marijuana has not been medically proved to be effective. Legalizing it, added some DEA officials, would result in a confusing message to the public at a time when the government is attempting to wage a war on drugs.
While a spokesman for DEA said administrator John C. Lawn will not comment on the proposal until he’s had a chance to review it, The Washington Post recently reported that the measure will most likely be voted down. Attorneys for the National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws alleged, however, that Young’s research shows enough evidence for an initial rejection to eventually be overturned.
Lawn’s recommendation will have to be reviewed by the U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals. In 1980, the court had ordered DEA to conduct hearings in the matter.
What Young is actually recommending is to change marijuana from Schedule I to Schedule II. A Schedule I drug is an illegal substance with no known medical use whatsoever; a Schedule II drug is a substance that can be prescribed by physicians, although it is unavailable to the general public.
Ophthalmologists have suggested marijuana in the treatment of glaucoma, but Young has denounced it for this purpose. There’s insufficient evidence that it would be effective in this area, he explained.
Several pharmaceutical organizations contacted by Drug Topics refrained from comment at this time. However, a spokeswoman from the American Pharmaceutical Association said the organization is preparing a formal paper and will come out with a statement upon its completion.
Ed Nida, a spokesman for the Food & Drug Administration, said the agency is currently studying the matter and had no statement at this time. He added that the National Institute on Drug Abuse is also weighing the pros and cons of the proposal.
Source Citation (MLA 7th Edition)
Gannon, Kathi. “Marijuana controversy sparks debate among DEA officials.” Drug Topics 17 Oct. 1988: 42+. General OneFile. Web. 24 Mar. 2015.
Believe it or not, a nicotine addiction can be tougher to beat than a lust for cocaine or heroin. While that may sound unlikely, Donna Causey, a cardiologist and research consultant to Marion Merrell Dow Inc., recently told science writers that smoking is a three-pronged addiction.
Smoking confers psychological benefits, such as mood-enhancement, a calming effect, and increased alertness, the physician told attendees at an Alza Corp. sponsored seminar on drug-delivery systems in New York City. It also has a “strong habit component.” The act of lighting up a cigarette becomes associated with all sorts of environmental cues.
Finally, Causey said, “there is a definite physical addiction to nicotine and a very miserable withdrawal syndrome associated with giving it up.” Nixing nicotine triggers anger, anxiety, cigarette craving, frustration, increased hunger, irritability, and an inability to think clearly.
A variety of methods have been used to ease the separation. Hypnosis has worked for some; acupuncture has been tried but is not particularly effective. One San Francisco man, she said, was successful after chaining himself to his sofa for two weeks.
Treatment with clonidine, anti-anxiety agents, or antidepressants has been attempted but is not as effective as nicotine replacement therapy, Causey continued. This has been administered in the form of nicotine pola-crilex gum – MMD’s Nicorette. The product is designed to block the craving and diminish withdrawal symptoms while keeping nicotine levels too low to potentiate pleasurable effects.
Last month, an alternative replacement therapy based on the same concept received Food & Drug Administration approval. Nicoderm, manufactured by Alza Corp. and marketed by MMD, became the first nicotine transdermal patch to receive the go-ahead.
The gum, though “definitely effective,” poses some difficulties, Causey said. Using it can cause jaw fatigue; it may also prove problematic for those with false teeth or other dental work, added the doctor, who at one time headed up Alza’s transdermal nicotine clinical development program. “Probably the most important” problem, she said, “is that they simply don’t chew enough to raise plasma nicotine levels to a point where withdrawal symptoms are blocked.”
Many who want to quit smoking may find the patch a suitable way to go, Causey said. The system delivers a “fairly constant” level of nicotine over a 24-hour period. This keeps patients comfortable throughout the day, she added, and may prevent the early morning cravings that plague awakening smokers.
Nicoderm will be available in three systems: 21 mg/day, 14 mg/day, and 7 mg/day. Generally, a smoker will use the highest-strength patch for six weeks, drop down to the intermediate strength for two weeks, and spend a final two weeks on the lowest dose.
However, Causey said, patients with heart disease, adults under 100 lb. (the drug is not designed for very young smokers), and light smokers should start out with the intermediate strength for six weeks, then the lowest for two.
In clinical trials with more than 1,000 patients, Nicoderm “at least doubled the quit rate,” compared with a placebo patch, Causey said. MMD has not compared the efficacy of the patch with Nicorette’s.
More than 95% of those applying the system judged it comfortable and convenient. One common adverse reaction was insomnia, Causey said, but it tended to resolve almost completely after a week. Nightmares were reported half as often – by about 7%.
It is believed patients will be easily weaned from the patch. Unlike the gum, it does not offer “oral gratification,” the doctor noted. It is also “less abusable,” because it releases steady, not fluctuating, levels of nicotine.
MMD estimates that the cost of Nicoderm will be similar to that of Nicorette. At press time, the company was planning to introduce the drug this month. Ciba-Geigy Corp., Lederle Laboratories, and Warner-Lambert Co. were also awaiting approval of transdermal nicotine products.
Cynthia Starr, R.Ph.
Source Citation (MLA 7th Edition)
Starr, Cynthia. “First nicotine patch smokes through approval process.” Drug Topics 16 Dec. 1991: 22+. General OneFile. Web. 24 Mar. 2015.
In the modern day and age individuals are more focused on their health and well being than ever before. The rise of the Internet and the modern forms of media mean that an individual has the ability to be in the spotlight now so, more than ever before, and can dictate their life through the access they have to certain medicines and techniques. Information regarding ways in which to be healthy and live life to the fullest are also available. This is a good thing, as the world is now incredibly polluted and this can have negative effects on an individual, causing serous illness to take place. In this article we will take a look at the best detoxes for drug testing that are available to individuals who have a desire to cleanse their body and relieve it from the bad particles that can form within the body. Try these detoxes for yourself as a way in which to rid the negative things that we consume, so that we are cleansed.
Many individuals lead busy lives and therefore do not have a lot of free time. Having a detox solution that is fast acting and easy to use is essential and it is for this reason why the Rapid Cleanse solution has a large number of benefits. It focuses on a 7 day cleanse that is deep acting and has a powerful and effective solution on the body. It is designed to cleanse the individual, thanks to the carefully selected blend of ingredients. This includes a combination of amino acids, as well as Vitamin C, both which are supplied in high amounts. If you feel that you need a detox solution that is fast acting and effective, then why not try this 7 day solution.
This is a good detox solution for individuals who are new to detoxing and who want to try a solution that is easy on the body and gentle in the ingredients. This is also good for individuals who may be more sensitive to certain treatments and is designed for those who like to see results quickly from the solution that they choose. The detox can be taken over a matter of weeks and will begin to take effect after the second week, so long as it is taken on a regular basis. Those who are new to cleansing detox formulas should give this detox a go, either on its own, or as a warm up before moving onto another form of detox supplement.
Aside from these detox drinks, here’s more information on how to pass a drug test.
If you have been feeling particularly unhealthy for one reason or another, then you may wish to try the Body-Tox detox. This formula is designed specifically for individuals who want to rid the body of harmful and negative toxins that may have developed within the individual tissues. The detox is also designed to help the individual return their bowel movements to their original normality. This detox is designed for use over a 15 day period and is focused on removing the bloating feeling that can build up. It is also designed to help the organs within the body function properly.
This is one of the more popular detox solutions that is currently available on the market and will appeal to individuals who want something that will help them, but that they do not need to take too often. This detox works by effecting the deeper layers of the bodily tissue that can be found in the organs within the body, such as the kidneys and the colon. Experts suggest using this detox around twice a year, so as to effectively remove any particles that are harmful and that may have developed within areas of the body, such as the internal organs.
Here are just a few of the detox solutions that are currently popular and are used by a wide range of individuals around the world. If your want more on passing drug tests (such as urine tests…), check out this article: How to Pass a Urine Drug Test. There are now many options available that can benefit in different ways. However, it is important that you research the product before you begin using it, so that you are aware. If you unsure of a certain product, then contact your local doctor for more information.Read more